Category Archives: Sebastien Gendry’s Laughter Yoga Blog

Want to feel better? Why relaxation is important, and how laughter can help

Because of the high level of stress in modern society, relaxation is very important. There has been much research around the world to study the relationship between stress and health. We have learned that that stress not only affects our moods but major and potentially dangerous disorders. Stress can cause digestive disorders, raise cholesterol levels, create hypertension, damage arteries to the point there becomes a blockage and heart disease. Stress is also known to cause or worsen bowel conditions, lower immunities which causes our bodies more susceptible to infections and viruses. It can also slow recovery from major traumas to the body.

We must learn to prevent and/or resolve stress in our life as much as possible. This, in turn, will highly enhance the quality of our lives.

How

 

The ABCs of Happiness

By Steve Wilson

Avoid negative sources, people, places, things and habits.
Believe in yourself.
Consider things from every angle.
Don’t postpone joy!
Enjoy today. Yesterday is history, tomorrow is a mystery, today is a gift, that’s why it’s called the present.
Family and friends are hidden treasures.
Give up any anger you might have been hanging on to, but…
Happiness is like perfume: you can’t sprinkle it on others without getting some on yourself.
Ignore those who try to discourage you.
Jolly + jovial + jestful = joyful!
Keep on learning. Learn something new each day.
Look for humor in everyday situations.
Make smiles happen.
Never lie, cheat, or steal. Always strike a fair deal.
Open your eyes, and see the beauty in all of nature.
Play. You don’t stop playing because you grow old, you grow old because you stop playing.
Quiet times give us balance.
Read, study and learn about something new every day.
Stop and smell the roses.
Take control of what you can; let God have the rest.
Understand others first, then seek to be understood.
Visualize happy memories.
Work at making others happy.
X-ercise your right to be unique.
Zero in on laughter and go for it!

How to be an innerpreneur

“Invent a business that smiles on the world
Discover what is needed that you believe in with all your heart
A service you are really good at and love to do. Let it be your classroom
Try new ideas. Play with everything. Dive in
Cherish good people including yourself.
Get negative people out of your life
Romp on the floor with your dog.
Make friends with trees. Listen to their stories
Believe in butterflies. If they can fly a thousand miles, think what you can do
Earn enough for your need but not for your greed, leaving a heritage so that when you
die you will be missed.” – Sami Sunchild

Stay Young

The following poem by Samuel Ullman hung over the desk of General Douglas MacArthur while he oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951 and helped create sweeping economic, political and social changes.

Youth is not a time of life, it is a state of mind. It is a temper of the will, a quality of the imagination, a vigor of the emotions, a predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the love of ease.

Nobody grows old by merely living a number of years. People grow old by deserting their ideals. Years wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, doubt, self-distrust, fear and despair, these are the long, long years that bow the head and turn the growing spirit back to dust.

Whether seventy or seventeen there is in every beings heart the love of wonder, the sweet amazement of the stars and the starlight things and thoughts, the undaunted challenge of events and the childlike appetite for what’s next, and the joy and the game of life.

You are as young as your faith, as old as your doubt, as young as your self-confidence, as old as your fear. So long as your heart receives messages of beauty, cheer, courage, grandeur and power from the earth, from man, and from the infinite, so long you are young.”

Stay young

If you would like to read more about Samuel Ullman and this poem, you might try Margaret E. Armbrester’s biography: Samuel Ullman and “Youth”: The Life, the Legacy (Amazon).

How to Stay Stressed: 25 Good Suggestions for Bad Health

  1. Always begin by setting impossibly high standards for yourself
  2. Avoid all meditation and relaxation
  3. Compare yourself only with the greatest masters of all times
  4. Condemn all your mistakes and imperfections without mercy
  5. Don’t ask for help
  6. Don’t exercise; eat anything at all, anytime you want
  7. Don’t fasten your seatbelt
  8. Don’t play. Never laugh.
  9. Eliminate your sense of humor
  10. Exploit the friendship of others for your short-term advantage
  11. Fixate on the outcome, and ignore the process
  12. Identify the success of every endeavor as an assessment of your value as a human being
  13. If you have a physical problem, seek a quick, easy solution outside yourself
  14. Ignore your support networks
  15. Never listen to music for pleasure
  16. Rate everything as critically and equally important
  17. Smoke, drink, use stimulants, take drugs
  18. Stay disorganized
  19. Stay in the victim position
  20. Take all criticism as total truth and take it personally
  21. Take no responsibility for your behavior
  22. Take on too much, never say no
  23. View your work not as a commitment but as a burden to resent
  24. When in doubt, blame someone else
  25. Worry constantly about factors beyond your control

Credit: David Gordon

Laughter Insights, July 2013

In This Edition:

  1. Editorial
  2. Three $150 scholarships available for the 2013 All America Laughter Yoga Conference
  3. Upcoming life-changing trainings
  4. Of interest in our online store

Editorial

Hello,

there is a saying is French that says “happy people have no history.” I am not quite sure about that.

The people I meet who are truly shining from the inside out have all faced major – sometimes very traumatic – adversity and greatly suffered. They each had to face the darkest night of their soul.

Why didn’t they die? What is it they did to be reborn out of their own ashes?

Each is a sample of one and I am not trying to draw general conclusions here, but I still observe that all have one thing in common: laughter marked a turning point in their lives. The methods they used are varied: Norman Cousins inspired many to seek humor everywhere starting in the 1960s with his miraculous recovery from a life threatening condition listening to jokes and watching funny movies (see the movie “Anatomy of an illness” for free online); the clown-doctor Patch Adams was so sad as a youth that he tried to kill himself three times before he realized that he could infuse his life with love and meaning through clowning and laughing with others (watch his TEDx testimonials). His example inspired the creation of thousand of hospital clowns groups starting in the 1970s who have since worked with 100,000s of patients. Closer to us is the worldwide Laughter Yoga phenomenon and its associated many thousands of social Laughter Clubs (find a Laughter Club near you) where people get together just to laugh, because they can, without using jokes or comedy. Of all approaches to laughter, Laughter Yoga has been so far the most succesfull because it was the first to democratize the use of laughter by turning it into a form of exercise (learn more). Laughter Wellness is now carrying the torch even further.

Because there is no historical and therefore no cultural context on a big enough scale for adults choosing to be happy and joy-filled in our society, this type of behavior is often perceived as either bizarre, funny, or silly. It is accepted as a form of entertainment but no more.

If that’s your opinion you just don’t know what you’re missing. Laughing is indeed entertaining, but that’s a free bonus. This is not why you should do it. It heals. It empowers. It connects (watch this 2 minutes videos of one man laughing at a tram stop). Each time you laugh you create a tsunami of happy and healing chemicals that you want, need, but could not pay for (assuming we knew how to manufacture them, which we still don’t.) There is more: choose to laugh as often and as much as you want. It will force you to choose to live and reframe the question “why is this happnening to me?” into “why is this happening for me?”

You don’t need to be happy or have a reason. Laughing “with” is not the same thing as laughing at; accepting your vulnerabilities is not a sign of weakness, but rather one of power because it gives you control over your fears and teaches equanimity wrapped in compassion.

Someone explained to me recently that our happiness setpoint is 50% genetic (that part can’t be changed), 10% circumstances and 40% intentional activities (the outcome of what you do on a regular basis).

You can lift that level up by practicing new habits.

There is hope. You can change. Here is how:

  • Put laughter to the test, now
  • Join or start a Laughter Club
  • It’s only once per year and it’s happening soon: participate in the 2013 All American Laughter Yoga Conference (Vancouver, BC, 8/22-25). Above and beyond the education and the networking, this is where you will meet walking miracles, litterally. This conference will be streamed and available online for a small fee. Read more and sign up.
  • Laughter Coaching has arrived! The American School Of Laughter Yoga now proudly offers one-on-one phone (or video-conferencing) laughter sessions that are tailored to your specific needs and will leave you feeling much better within 45 minutes. Every member of our team of professional Laughter Coaches has a PHD (Predominantly Humorous Disposition). They will help you unblock your clown chakra and boost the level of your humorglobins, guaranteed!

May July see you thrive!

All smiles

Sebastien Gendry
Paris, France
July 14th, 2013

Three $150 Scholarships Available For The 2013 All America Laughter Yoga Conference, Vancouver, BC, 8/22-25

Thanks to generous donors and the American School of Laughter Yoga’s own commitment to match all donations received we currently have 3 financial scholarships of $150 each available as a discount towards the registration to the 2013 All America Laughter Yoga conference that is happening in Vancouver, BC, next month. Read more about this event at http://2013.laughteryogaamerica.com

To benefit, sign up for this conference and enter the discount code SCHOLARSHIP-150 (it is case sensitive) in the indicated box below your conference selection (valid for the main 3 day events only).

Contact us for more information. These scholarships are available on a first come first served basis.

We look forward to sharing and laughing with you in Vancouver!

Upcoming Life-Changing Trainings

  • It’s only once per year and it’s happening soon: participate in the 2013 All American Laughter Yoga Conference (Vancouver, BC, 8/22-25). Above and beyond the education and the networking, this is where you will meet walking miracles, litterally. This conference will be streamed and available online for a small fee. Read more and sign up.
  • Upcoming Life-Changing Trainings

    www.laughteryogaamerica.com/level1

    www.laughteryogaamerica.com/level2

    Laughter Yoga Business Training

    Online: open 24/7/365

    Can’t come to a training? Then the Laughter Online University is for you. Get a a solid, reliable and up-to-date laughter education (and continuing education!) that’s peer-reviewed and validated.

    Of interest in our online store

    Best sellers

    New this month

    Do you need Laughter-Yoga related t-shirts, iphone covers, bags or other home accessories that come with a 30 day money back guarantee? If so then this will be of interest to you.

    Merv’s Blog, July 2013

    I’m writing this newsletter at 35,000 feet as I fly across the Tasman Sea on my way back from the first ever New Zealand Laughter Yoga Conference. The Kiwis, by their own admission, are a “rather conservative lot”, and many jokes have been told by us Aussies about their main industry, sheep. As I was a guest, I was very aware of this point. I also reminded myself that Laughter Yoga is not about jokes and being funny, it’s about being fun. This is an important point to remember always in our Laughter Clubs also.

    The Conference started with a laughter session by one of their Laughter Leaders from Christchurch, Hannah Airey. As there were many people there who were being exposed to Laughter Yoga for the first time, she handled the situation beautifully, until we were all asked to lie on our backs on the floor and put our arms and legs in the air. Hannah then said “this one is especially for you Merv”. They all started to baa like sheep and laugh for no reason. It was at that point that I thought to myself…BRING IT ON ! ! ! (ha ha ha)

    An experience beyond belief

    The next two days were filled with a once in a lifetime, and life changing experiences. I know this, because this is what people were telling me during, and after the Conference, whether they were new to Laughter Yoga or not. We laughed and we played and we sang and we danced for two whole days. It was exhausting, exhilarating, inspiring, challenging, rejuvenating, and any other emotion that ends with an “ing”

    What I learned was…

    I can’t even start to tell you here the new information that I learned so I won’t. The GRRREAT news is that the whole Conference was captured on video for others to see. This video will be for sale shortly and the proceeds will assist the ongoing development of Laughter Yoga in New Zealand. If you buy one and don’t enjoy it, or learn at least one new thing, then I will personally give you your money back.

    I now have more friends…and I’m not talking Facebook

    It was a wonderful experience to meet Amazon from Japan again, as well as some other Kiwis who have come to our Conference before. But more importantly, it was the experience of making new friends, that weren’t of the imaginary ones like those on Facebook. These were real people connecting in real time with others of similar interests. My congratulations and gratitude for their hard work and hospitality, goes out to Lynda and John Andrews. You both epitomize everything that is Laughter Yoga.

    The 2013 Australian Laughter Yoga Conference

    The next Conference I’ll be heading off to, is the All American Conference at the end of August. Full details can be found at http://2013.laughteryogaamerica.com. But for many of you, and closer to home, the next chance that you have to get some of what I’ve just had, is the 2013 Australian Laughter Yoga Conference. This will be held at The Vibe Hotel in Sydney on the 19th and 20th October. Registrations will be opening shortly, and an agenda of presenters is being assembled. So put these dates in your diary and watch out for the next newsletter for full details.

     
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    Merv’s Blog, June 2013

    Aretha Franklin got me thinking about R-E-S-P-E-C-T

    There has been a debate raging recently about facts, statistics, and data around Laughter, Humor, and Laughter Yoga. Having completed a Research Study with Deakin University last year, I now understand why they are so important. Because others believe they are. My personal challenge has been to define what facts are relevant, to what group, and why. Then Aretha Franklin came to mind. Back in 1967, she sang a song called Respect. Near the end, her backing singers warbled “re re re re re re re re respect”

    RE-al, RE-levant, RE-flective, RE-spectful

    An old National Speakers trick that I learnt, was to create acronyms, and/or metaphors, to help you remember certain things, or to make a point to an audience. So here’s my theory on facts, and stats, and data, based on Aretha’s song

    [pl_video type=”youtube” id=”aBT-g5H9Nss”]

    Are the facts RE-al???

    With the advent of the Internet, I’m not sure there is anything out there that is the truth anymore. In other words, and from what I’ve seen, it is very much about people’s opinions, rather than sound evidence. Bloggers are the new information providers, and journalists so often refer to Bloggers. The media speculates, rather than reports, and the reports are not based on evidence, but people’s speculation. So when I have to present to whatever group it is I have the good fortune to be able to share Laughter Yoga with, I make sure that my evidence is real. I just came back from opening a Medical Conference with 100 doctors in our Nation’s Capital Canberra. My information had to be sound, so I asked our own Good Doctor Kataria for some medical facts, and the folks who were there soaked it up without question. Doctors like to hear from other doctors

    Are they RE-levant???

    Being relevant is all about connecting with your audience, and getting the message across in a succinct fashion. Statistics can do this very effectively. Time and time again, I’ve heard presenters give national, or worldwide statistics, to a local community group. They only want to hear what’s happening in their territory. The Local Council has all of this, and it’s usually freely available on their website

    Are they RE-flective???

    Will the data that you provide have them thinking deeply about your message, or falling asleep because of it. I find that there is a Representative Association for just about everything. Calling them to ask about what’s happening with their Members makes them reflect. Especially when you start to take about future trends. I’ve never had an Association refuse a request from me to help their members

    RESPECT your audience

    And finally, and most importantly, your audience is not dummies. They can spot a fraud a mile away. If you don’t know the answer to something then say so, and go and find out. I remember the story about our own Good Doctor when he was embarking on his first National Tour of the USA. His grasp of the English language was limited, as was his knowledge at that time. So he decided to come up with an answer for every question, and it was “I don’t know”. From there he found out, and is who he is today because of it

    Do you want a PHD (Predominantly Happy Disposition)? Hug 8 people every day

    Recent studies suggest that humans are “hard-wired” to thrive as social animals. Non threatening physical contact (hugging in particular) leads to a natural reduction in stress and the production of happy chemistry that lasts several hours.

    To summarize: touch lowers the output of cortisol, a stress hormone, and when cortisol dips there’s a surge of “feel good” brain chemicals such as serotonin, dopamine and oxytocin.

    What is Oxytocin?

    Oxytocin is the hormone of loveOxytocin in particular (a neurotransmitter that acts as a hormone) helps calm the body from stress, promote the growth of healthy tissue, aid in digestion, increase energy, overcome desires for addictive behaviors and that’s just the tip of its iceberg of benefits. Most importantly oxytocin tells the brain, “Everything is all right” and helps us navigate our world of complex social relationships by rewarding positive social behavior with feelings of contentment and relaxation. It motivates a variety of pro-social behaviors such as generosity, compassion, and forgiveness, and helps us to trust and bond with strangers.

    10 Good Reasons Why You Want More Oxytocin

    1. It’s easy to get

    One of the neat things about oxytocin is that you can get your fix anywhere and at any time. All you need to do is simply hug someone or shake their hand. The simple act of bodily contact will cause your brain to release low levels of oxytocin — both in yourself and in the person you’re touching. It’s a near-instantaneous way to establish trust. And the good news is that the effect lingers afterward. There’s even evidence that simply gazing at someone will do the trick — or even just thinking about them. And you shouldn’t feel limited by the human species; it also helps to hug and play with your pets. And for those who can’t produce enough oxytocin on their own, or who feel they could use a boost, the molecule can be easily synthesized and administered as a drug.

    2. A love potion that’s built right in

    Often referred to as the “love molecule”, oxytocin is typically associated with helping couples establish a greater sense of intimacy and attachment. Oxytocin, along with dopamine and norepinephrine, are believed to be highly critical in human pair-bonding. But not only that, it also increases the desire for couples to gaze at one another, it creates sexual arousal, and it helps males maintain their erections. When you’re sexually aroused or excited, oxytocin levels increase in your brain significantly — a primary factor for bringing about an orgasm. And during the orgasm itself, the brain is flooded with oxytocin — a possible explanation for why (some) couples like to cuddle after.

    3. It helps mom to be mom

    But oxytocin isn’t just limited to helping couples come together — it’s an indispensable part of childbirth and mother-child bonding. Oxytocin helps women get through labour by stimulating uterine contractions, which is why it’s sometimes administered (as Pitocin) during labor. It’s been known to promote delivery and speed up contractions. After birth, mothers can establish intimacy and trust with their baby through gentle touches and even a loving gaze. In addition, mothers can pass on oxytocin to their babies through breast milk. And it’s worth noting that fathers can reap the benefits of oxytocin as well; new dads who are given a whiff of oxytocin nasal spray are more likely to encourage their children to explore during playtime and are less likely to be hostile.

    4. Reduces social fears

    Given its ability to break-down social barriers, induce feelings of optimism, increase self-esteem, and build trust, oxytocin is increasingly being seen as something that can help people overcome their social inhibitions and fears. Studies are showing that it may be effective in treating debilitating shyness, or to help people with social anxieties and mood disorders. It’s also thought that oxytocin could help people suffering from post traumatic stress disorder. In addition, given that autism is essentially a social communication disorder, it’s being considered as a way of helping people on the spectrum as well. And lastly, oxytocin, through its trust-building actions, can help heal the wounds of a damaged relationship — another example of how the mind gets its plasticity.

    5. Healing and pain relief

    Amazingly, oxytocin can also be used to heal wounds (through its anti-inflammatory properties). Studies have also shown that a rise in oxytocin levels can relieve pain — everything from headaches, cramps and overall body aches. Now, that being said, the trick is to get some oxytocin action while you’re in pain — which is not so easy. This is where synthetics can certainly help. Alternately, if you find yourself in physical discomfort, you could always ask your partner for a roll in the hay. So guys, be sure to use this crucial information the next time your significant other declines your advances and tells you she has a headache.

    6. A diet aid

    Perhaps surprisingly, it can also be used to prevent obesity in some instances. Researchers have observed that oxytocin and oxytocin receptor-deficient mice become obese later in life — and with normal food intake. Scientists believe that the hormone might be responsible for a series of beneficial metabolic effects, both in mice and humans. Moreover, by giving oxytocin-deficient obese mice oxytocin infusions, their weight returned back to normal levels. The mice also showed a reduced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. This clearly suggests an alternative option for those struggling to keep the weight off.

    7. An antidepressant

    Oxytocin was first observed to have a connection to depression through its effects on mothers suffering from postpartum syndrome. Researchers found that some new mothers were dealing with depression on account of low levels of oxytocin. In fact, they were able to predict postpartum during the pregnancy if the expectant mother had low levels of oxytocin. Recent studies of blood levels and genetic factors in depressed patients have revealed the potential for treating people with clinical depression, and even anxiety disorders.

    8. Stress relief

    Not surprisingly, given its ability to alleviate social anxiety and produce feelings of trust, oxytocin has the peripheral ability to reduce stress — which is no small thing when you consider the toll that stress takes on the body. Oxytocin has been observed to reduce cortisol in the body and lower blood pressure. It’s also been known to improve digestion, which is often disturbed by high stress levels. Interestingly, oxytocin and the oxytocin receptors have been found in the intestinal tract; it improves gut motility and decreases intestinal inflammation.

    9. Increases generosity

    In what could be seen as either a good or bad thing, oxytocin has been observed to increase generosity in humans. Evolutionary biologists, particularly those who subscribe to the selfish gene theory, have long struggled to understand why people sometimes share or give away things — often at a personal cost. But several lines of research have connected oxytocin to feelings of empathy. In one study that required persons to share money with a stranger, infusions of oxytocin were shown to make some subjects as much as 80% (wow!) more generous than those on a placebo.

    10. It’s what makes us human

    In other words, all the above. It’s clear that we really wouldn’t be human without it — we would simply lack the ability to be the social, caring species that we are. Now, it should be noted, however, that, while oxytocin increases in-group trust, it produces the opposite feeling for those in the out-group — so it’s not the “perfect drug” some might proclaim it to be. That being said, oxytocin plays a crucial role in forging our ability to spark and maintain relationships, while endowing us with the ability to empathize, trust, and even love one another. Without it, we would be something significantly less than what we are.

    How to naturally create and benefit from Oxytocin?

    How can we naturally create oxytocin and maximize its release in our own bodies? Oxytocin levels increase when we love, connect, and socialize with those around us. Try this:

    1) Think about someone you love

    If you want a deeper connection with your spouse, children, or parent simply thinking positive thoughts about that person can increase oxytocin levels in the blood and thereby decrease stress hormones.

    2) Socialize

    Social stimulation naturally increases oxytocin levels. Some researchers suggest that oxytocin may have an “addictive” quality. In other words, the “high” humans receive from the release of oxytocin might trigger us to continue in social relationships.

    3) Touch

    Hugging and close contact with those you love is a natural way to increase oxytocin levels. Breastfeeding, rocking, or holding your children create healthy bonds, a feeling of connection, and lower stress hormones. Getting a massage or back rub, participating in yoga, or hugging and kissing your spouse or partner are additional ways you can naturally increase oxytocin levels. In a TED Talk, Dr. Zak prescribes at least 8 hugs per day to feel happier and more connected, as well as to nurture relationships. According to Zak, after only 20 seconds of hugging a romantic partner, one can achieve a spike in oxytocin levels, as well as a decrease in blood pressure, heart rate, and cortisol levels. (Side note: hug seniors citizens! Older adults benefit most from touch. The older you are, the more fragile you are physically, so contact becomes increasingly important for good health.)

    4) Soothing music

    Playing relaxing music can increase oxytocin levels. Wilson, in the Journal of Clinical Nursing, found that those patients who listened to soothing music during rest or sleep after open heart surgery experienced increased oxytocin levels. Soothing music can elicit feelings of bonding and connection by creating a shared experience among individuals.

    5) Own a pet

    Research has shown pet owners tend to have lower stress levels. Lowered stress levels in pet owners might be as result of the protective factor against stress oxytocin produces. The boosts in oxytocin pet owners experience from the squeezes, licks, and hugs their cats and dogs freely offer is beneficial for both the owner and the pet.

    6) Laugh!

    Laughing makes you feel good. Laughter Yoga and Laughter Wellness in particular help create a strong bond and lots of empathy with strangers.

    [pl_blockquote cite=”Herman Melville”] “We cannot live only for ourselves. A thousand fibers connect us with our fellow men; and among those fibers, as sympathetic threads, our actions run as causes, and they come back to us as effects.”
    [/pl_blockquote]

    References:

    http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/2003-03-09-hug-usat_x.htm

    Barraza, J. A., McCullough, M. E., Ahmadi, S. & Zak, P. J. (2011). Oxytocin infusion increases charitable donations regardless of monetary resourcesHormones and Behavior, 60(2), 148-151. DOI: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.04.008

    Ditzen, B. et al. (2009). Intranasal Oxytocin Increases Positive Communication and Reduces Cortisol Levels During Couple Conflict. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 728-73. Abstract.

    Grewen, K. M., Girdler, S. S., Amico, J. & Light, K. C. (2005). Effects of partner support on resting oxytocin, cortisol, norepinephrine, and blood pressure before and after warm partner contact. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(4), 531-538. Abstract.

    Guastella, A. J., Mitchell, P. B. & Mathews, F. (2008) Oxytocin Enhances the Encoding of Positive Social Memories in Humans. Biological Psychiatry, 64(3), 256–258. Abstract.

    Light K. C., Grewen, K. M. & Amico, J. A. (2005). More frequent partner hugs and higher oxytocin levels are linked to lower blood pressure and heart rate in premenopausal women. Biological Psychology, 69(1), 5-21. Epub 2004 Dec 29. Abstract.

    Mikolajczaka, M., Pinonb, N., Lanea, A., de Timaryc, P. & Lumineta, O. (2010). Oxytocin not only increases trust when money is at stake, but also when confidential information is in the balance. Biological Psychology, 85, 1, 182–184. Abstract.

    Surguladze S. A., Young, A. W., Senior, C., Brébion, G., Travis, M. J. & Phillips, M. L. (2004). Recognition accuracy and response bias to happy and sad facial expressions in patients with major depression. Neuropsychology.;18(2):212-8.

    Theodoridou, A., Rowe, I., Penton-Voak, I., Rogers, P. (2009). Oxytocin and social perception: Oxytocin increases perceived facial trustworthiness and attractiveness. Hormones and Behavior, 56,1, 128–132.

    Vuilleumier, P. (2002). Facial expression and selective attention. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 15:291-30.

    Wellsphere 2010: Release the Flow of Oxytocin for Emotional and Relationship Health

    Zak P. J., Stanton, A. A. & Ahmadi, S. (2007) Oxytocin Increases Generosity in Humans. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1128. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001128

    Zak, P. J. (2008). The Neurobiology of Trust. Scientific American.

    Zak, P. J. (2011). Trust, Morality – and Oxytocin. TED Talk.